A major contributor to the growth of the English middle class was the business generated by the American colonies. Factories in New York and Philadelphia produced iron products such as tools, nails, kettles and plows for use throughout the colonies. Demarcated by the 42nd parallel north and 39th parallel north, Pennsylvania was bordered by the Delaware River and the colonies of New York, Maryland, and New Jersey. 2.What goods did the British colonies import and export. The fertile soil of these colonies allowed them to grow crops, particularly grains. Bodle, Wayne. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch patroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. The fertile soil was well suited for crops like wheat, fruits and vegetables. The lumber and shipbuilding industries enjoyed success in the Middle Colonies, and Pennsylvania saw moderate success in the textile and iron industry. In addition, iron factories would export iron ore to England. Based on the Word Net lexical database for the English Language. What kind of soil did the middle colonies have and what was it good for? "The Middle Colonies." How did the New England and Middle colonies' economies differ in general from the economy of the South? The most common solution was indentured servitude of young whites. Other industries included the production of iron ore, lumber, coal, textiles, furs and shipbuilding  Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania before departing for the colony, which called for religious tolerance towards many groups, including the Religious Society of Friends and local natives. , Both William Penn and the Lords Baltimore encouraged Irish Protestant immigration, hoping they could obtain indentured servants to work on their estates and on colonial developments. they imported things like wood, timber, slaves, and farm animals. King Charles II renamed the land west of the Hudson River New Jersey and gave the region between New England and Maryland to his brother, the Duke of York (later King James II of England) as a proprietary colony. This tolerance was very unusual and distinct from the situation in other British colonies. 5th grade. The true mahogany, which grows in Jamaica, is at present almost all cut down. Non-British colonists included Dutch Calvinist, Swedish Lutherans, Palatine Mennonites, and the Amish. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland. In most colonies the church was the school and town hall. These were demarcated into three regions: the New England Colonies (Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts and New Hampshire), the Southern Colonies (Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia) and the Middle Colonies (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey). Factories in New York and Philadelphia produced iron products such as tools, nails, kettles and plows for use throughout the colonies. The Middle Colonies were more diverse than the other regions, and also less cohesive. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. 300. History. Edit. These coalitions eventually grew into diverse and large political organizations, evolving especially during the French and Indian War. A Colonial Assembly convened in October 1683, making New York the last colony to have an assembly. The Congress had Royal Governor William Franklin arrested on June 15, declaring him "an enemy to the liberties of this country".  On July 2, 1776, New Jersey enacted the New Jersey State Constitution, soon after having empowered delegates to the Continental Congress, on June 21, to join in a declaration of independence. The religions were Mennonites, Lutheran ,Dutch Calvinists and Presbyterians . In return they receive either sugar, molasses, rum, indigo, mahogany, and other goods, or ready money. Before the American Revolution, America was made up of 13 colonies. The Middle colonies were also a “middle region” between the North and South. Colonists were required to pay annual quit-rent taxes. Other factories manufactured such consumer goods as paper products and textiles. Delaware changed hands between the Dutch and Swedes between 1631 and 1655. In Pennsylvania, sawmills and gristmills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly. This land grant became the Province of New Jersey..  This sale divided New Jersey into East Jersey and West Jersey; however, the border between the two was not agreed upon until the Quintipartite Deed in 1676. The original 13 colonies of what became the United States of America can be divided geographically into the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies. Classroom is the educational resource for people of all ages. Richard Nicolls served as the first governor of New York. The Middle Colonies are New Jersey, New York, Delaware, and Pennsylvania. 300. The Middle Colonies consisted of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. Though the war ended in a Dutch victory in 1667, the English retained New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English King's brother, the Duke of York, who had co-instigated the war for personal gain and had commanded the attack on New Netherland. In New York and Pennsylva-nia, farmers grew large quantities of wheat and other cash crops,crops that could be sold easily , The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. 5. Bodle, Wayne. Farm land was both productive and much less expensive than in Europe. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. The Middle Colonies were less industrial than the New England Colonies, yet more industrial than the Southern Colonies. Located in the middle of the Atlantic seaboard, their economies combined the industry of the North with the agriculture of the South. A constitution was drafted and passed on October 30, 1683, giving the colonists many rights, including the rights to no taxation without representation. Because the soil was rich in the Middle colonies, farmers were able to grow more grain than they could use. Boys learned skill and trade, and possibly classical languages, history and literature, math, and natural science. The Middle Colonies were more agricultural than both the Southern Colonies and the New England Colonies. The Middle colonies consisted of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Delaware. Due to all the wheat they could grow, these colonies became known as the Bread Basket of North America.  From 1692 to 1694, revolution in England deprived Penn of the governance of his colony. Save. Later settlers included members of various Protestant denominations, which were protected in the Middle Colonies by written freedom of religion laws. 3.In what ways did the flow of raw materials from the colonies affect British Industries? Pennsylvania became a leading exporter of wheat, corn, rye, hemp, and flax, making it the leading food producer in the colonies, and later states, between the years of 1725 and 1840.  In 1701, after he had troubles governing the ethnically diverse Delaware territory, Penn agreed to allow them a separate colonial assembly.. The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies' prosperity. Fur trappers moved along these rivers, and there was enough flow to enable milling with water wheel power. , The Middle Colonies’ political groups began as small groups with narrowly focused goals. The Middle Colonies had much fertile soil, which allowed the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. import and export goods. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the eighteenth century, though fewer worked in agriculture. This document provided for religious freedom, no taxes without assembly approval, and a governor appointed by the proprietors. Middle Colonies Way of Life. In May 1688 the province briefly became part of the Dominion of New England. Greenberg, Douglas. Most of their inhabitants were farmers. The native groups were the Algonkian and the Iroquois. After Hyde was recalled to England in 1708 over charges of graft, bribery, and corruption, the governor of New York was charged to also preside over New Jersey. In April 1775, American patriots formed the New York Provincial Congress to replace the assembly. Favorite Answer. The British got much of this area, now called the Mid-Atlantic, by capturing it from the Dutch. Other important industries included printing, publishing, and the related industry of papermaking. In 1773, Arthur St. Clair ordered the arrest of a Virginian officer who was commanding troops against armed settlers loyal to Pennsylvania. On April 15, 1702, Queen Anne united West and East Jersey into one Royal Colony, the Province of New Jersey. Middle Colonies DRAFT.  The Dutch recaptured the colony in July 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, but gave it back to the English under the Treaty of Westminster in exchange for Suriname. These were teenagers in Britain or Germany whose parents arranged for them to work for families in the colonies until age 21, in exchange for their ocean passage. For thither the inhabitants ship almost every day a quantity of flour, butter, flesh and other victuals; timber, plank and the like. Middle Colonies Corn and wheat and livestock including beef and pork. While some Welsh colonists like Roger Williams, left to found Rhode Island, Anne Hutchinson founded a seed settlement in New York. Farming, in fact, was so dominant in this region that the Middle Colonies earned the nickname of the "bread basket" of the colonies. See disclaimer. New York's charter and constitution were reinstated soon after. The Middle Colonies became known as the "breadbasket" colonies because of their ability to grow crops used to make bread. Name three races that were popular in the Middle Colonies. Governor William Tryon and all royal officials were forced from the colony on October 19, 1775. The Delaware Colony later separated from Pennsylvania, which was founded by William Penn. Where did most of the Import tax come from? , Labor was always in short supply. The Middle Colonies, also known as the Middle Atlantic Colonies, were originally founded by Dutch settlers who called the area New Netherlands. The colony also became a major producer of pig iron and its products, including the Pennsylvania long rifle and the Conestoga wagon. Africans were brought to the Middle Colonies enslaved, but some people were free.  Finally, in 1738, King George II appointed a separate governor, Lewis Morris, to run New Jersey. From Africa, slaves were shipped to the Americas.  In 1673, the Dutch retook the area but relinquished it under the Treaty of Westminster (1674), ending the Third Anglo-Dutch War the next year. With Swedish funding, the third governor of New Netherland later founded the colony of New Sweden in the region around Delaware Bay in 1638. The Middle Colonies were founded to work as a buffer between New England and Spanish-controlled Florida. Plus, many people were artisans or merchants with many skills. The reasons for the variety of cultures is due to the fact that the people of the Middle colonies came from many different countries. The first Dutch settlements in the New York area appeared around 1613. It was a very cost effective way for England to control trade and goods in the Americas for England's benefit. Growing unrest in the Middle Colonies eventually led the region to become the meeting place for the Continental Congress, and a center for revolution. As a consequence, early German settlements in the Americas concentrated in the Middle Colonies region. Swedes, Dutch, English, Germans, and Africans .  However, there were numerous pockets of neutrals and Loyalists. Parliament's eagerness to cash in on the affluence of the emerging middle class and the duplicity of its members by selling their influence to large business concerns was a formula for political disaster. It was not so good for the colonists, though, and especially bad for … It was the connector colonies that connected the New England Colonies with the Southern Colonies. Why were New York City and Philadelphia easier places to import and export goods? The lumber and shipbuilding industries were also successful in the Middle Colonies because of the abundant forests, and Pennsylvania was moderately successful in the textile and iron industries. The partly unglaciated Middle Colonies enjoyed fertile soil vastly different from the nearby New England Colonies, which contained more rocky soil. Its large exports led to its constituent colonies becoming known as the Bread Basket Colonies.  Other groups included the French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders.. Most were house servants in Manhattan, or farm workers on Dutch estates.. New York, originally called New Amsterdam, was given to the Duke of York. They began selling grain to other colonies and to England, shipping out of the big ports in Philadelphia and New York. Welsh Quakers, Baptists and Methodists settled in the Welsh Tract of Pennsylvania. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres (16–65 hectares), owned by the family that worked it. , The Middle Colonies were generally run by Royal or Proprietary Governors and elected Colonial Assemblies. Pennsylvania Society of Governors (1916), 180-181.  The first governor appointed in this way was Philip Carteret, who founded Elizabethtown. The mid-A… They primarily pushed farther into the western frontier of the colonies, where they repeatedly confronted the Indians. The Dutch maintained control of Delaware until 1664, when Sir Robert Carr took New Amstel for the Duke of York, renaming it New Castle. Farmers in this region cultivated larger areas of land and produced bigger harvests than did New Englanders. These industries, along with the presence of deep river estuaries, led to the appearance of important ports like New York and Philadelphia. They were unusual, however, for their degree of religious toleration and their wide range of … Edit. When James II was overthrown, the citizens of New York rebelled against the Royal Governor in Leisler's Rebellion. When the English took direct control of the Middle Colonies around 1664, many Quakers from Rhode Island had already been pushed into the region by Puritans, while Episcopalian businessmen settled in Philadelphia and New York City. Because of their prime locations along the Eastern coast, the Middle colonies were important distribution centers for English merchants. Local religious groups ran the schools in the middle colonies. "The "Myth of the Middle Colonies" Reconsidered: The Process of Regionalization in Early America". They had to import food and use their natural resources to provide items to trade.  A Deputy of the Duke governed Delaware from 1664 to 1682. The English captured the New Netherland Colony from the Dutch in 1664, renaming it the Province of New York after the King's brother, the Duke of York (later King James II). Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the middle colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. Thus, the definition of the Middle Colonies sometimes changed and overlapped with Rhode Island's colonial boundaries. Name three popular jobs? The Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies enjoyed fertile soil and a slightly milder climate than New England’s. The landscape made growing grains a profitable venture for these colonists. , The Provincial Congress of New Jersey, made up of elected delegates, formed in January 1776 to govern the colony. When the Duke of York became King James II of England, New York became a royal province. The Dutch Reformed were strong in upstate New York and New Jersey, and Congregationalists were important in Long Island. The Middle Colonies had much fertile soil, which allowed the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. Lumber and shipbuilding were both important industries in the Middle Colonies. The Duke of York never governed the colony himself: he instead appointed governors, councils, and other officers to run the government. The Middle Colonies were more diverse than colonies in New England and the South.  Penn's cousin William Markham served as the first colonial deputy governor.. During the reign of King Charles II, property within these colonies was given to those who had proven their loyalty to the king.  When the British banned western expansion in 1764, fighting among colonists and against the natives swelled. 00. New York and Philadelphia were the Middle Colonie’s biggest cities. , German immigrants favored the Middle Colonies. The Southern colonies used their land for cash crops such as tobacco and rice. The most populous of the Middle colonies was Pennsylvania, other colonies were settled rather haphazardly over the course of the 17th century. The colonies exported and imported mainly with Europe, particularly England. This area was reclaimed by the Dutch in 1655. in Louise A. Breen, ed., Bodle, Wayne, "The Mid-Atlantic and the American Revolution,", Tiedemann, Joseph S. "A Tumultuous People: The Rage for Liberty and the Ambiance of Violence in the Middle Colonies in the Years Preceding the American Revolution,", Tiedemann, Joseph S. "Interconnected Communities: The Middle Colonies on the Eve of the American Revolution,". After joining the Dominion of New England, however, Rhode Island was permanently thought of as a New England colony. 2808 times. Unlike New England, the Middle Colonies had richer, less rocky soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The British captured much of the area in their war with the Dutch around 1664, and the majority of the conquered land became the Province of New York. The Middle colonies, the middle region of the 13 colonies, were the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. Another factor contributing to this lack of cohesion was the fact that these settlers — unlike earlier Puritan settlers — weren't united by either religion or ethnicity, as settlers to the colonies were now coming from throughout Europe. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically and religiously diverse British colonies in North America with settlers from England, Scotland, Ireland, the Netherlands, and German states. The Dutch further explored and charted the area in multiple voyages between 1610 and 1616; the first Dutch settlements were built in 1613 and the name New Netherland appeared on maps from 1614 on. At first, most were Dutch, French, Belgian, or Swedish.  As a proprietary colony, Penn governed Pennsylvania, yet its citizens were still subject to the English crown and laws. State of Delaware (A Brief History) (2007). Colonial status ended for the new state with the United States Declaration of Independence in July 1776.  When Henry Sloughter became governor in March 1691, the rebellion was crushed and its leader, Jacob Leisler was arrested, tried, and executed for treason. In 1665, the Concession and Agreement was written in an effort to entice settlers to New Jersey. The goods imported include tobacco, sugar, and other tropical groceries. In addition, iron factories would export iron ore to England. From the Americas, sugar, tobacco, and cotton were shipped to England. "Themes and Directions in Middles Colonies Historiography, 1980–1994". Many Middle Colony constitutions guaranteed freedom of religion and forbade taxation without representation. The lumber and shipbuilding industries were also successful in the Middle Colonies because of the abundant forests, and Pennsylvania was moderately successful in the textile and iron industries. dierksk. The Middle colonies were called the breadbasket of the New World. The Middle Colonies had rich soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. Whether you’re studying times tables or applying to college, Classroom has the answers. Delaware was a colony founded by Peter Minuit in 1638 due the fact that it was a proprietary colony. They received (imported) English goods such as tea, paper, clothes, foods, and others. On March 18, 1674, after encountering difficulty collecting the taxes, Lord Berkeley sold his share in the colony to Edward Byllynge, a Quaker businessman from London. LIFE IN THE MIDDLE COLONIES On the farms the boys helped grow and harvest crops. "The Middle Colonies in Recent American Historiography", Other British colonial entities in the contemporary, Non-British colonial entities in the contemporary United States, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 05:31.  Broad navigable rivers of relaxed current like the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, and the Hudson River attracted diverse business. Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, the Carolinas and Georgia were all founded by Englishmen, settled by people of English descent and remained under English control throughout the colonial period. Girls were tutored at home in a variety of household and social skills. The Middle Colonies were composed of what is today the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware.  In 1704, Dutch land given to Penn by the Duke of York was separated and once again became part of the Delaware Colony. Abundant forests attracted both the lumbering and shipbuilding industries to the Middle Colonies. This could not be said of the middle colonies. © 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. Middle Colonies. Due to their central location, the Middle Colonies were able to be a place of important distribution to the colonies. Along with the Chesapeake Colonies, this area now roughly makes up the Mid-Atlantic states. The British colonies exported mostly woolen textiles. Then came the English Puritans and Quakers as well as German, Irish, and Scottish settlers. They were called the breadbasket of the colonies because of the grain that was grown there. Other people tried to become apprentices to learn Other people became laborers.  In October 1664, as a prelude to the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the English largely conquered this land from the Dutch. Pennsylvanian revolutionary sentiment continued to grow, and Philadelphia, the largest city in America, soon became the meeting place of the Continental Congress. Big Ship ports.  Often areas of the Middle Colonies displayed prevalent Irish cultural influence. Bod, Wayne. The United States Declaration of Independence ended their colonial status. Strong timber, iron, and shipbuilding industries helped make these colonies major trade centers. The Pennsylvania Assembly took this opportunity to request expanded power for elected officials, led by David Lloyd. 3 years ago. Sung Bok Kim, "A New Look at the Great Landlords of Eighteenth-Century New York,", United States Declaration of Independence, "Pennsylvania State History: The Quaker Province: 1681-1776", Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, "New Jersey in the American Revolution, 1763-1783: A Documentary History", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Middle_Colonies&oldid=991662456, Colonization history of the United States, Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. People in the middle colonies had varied lifestyles and participated in many different religions. In 1665, the Province of New Jersey split from New York; however, the New York-New Jersey Line War continued until the final borders were decided in 1769, and approved by the legislatures and the King in 1772 and 1773 respectively. The First Great Awakening invigorated religiosity and helped stimulate the growth of Congregational, Methodist and Baptist churches. By then, settlers were also arriving from countries other than England. The Duke of York and the King of England would later grant others ownership of the land which would become the Province of New Jersey and the Province of Pennsylvania. , Ethnically, the Middle Colonies were more diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. Royal governors were arrested or overthrown on more than one occasion, most notably when New Jersey arrested its governor and during Leisler's Rebellion in New York. They were erroneously labeled the Pennsylvania Dutch (the German word for German is "Deutsch"), and comprised one-third of the population by the time of the American Revolution. Because of the large grain exports resulting from this soil, the colonies came to be known as the Bread Basket Colonies. What may have accounted for this difference?  By the mid-eighteenth century, African American slaves comprised 12% of the population of New York. Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. This would cause New York and Pennsylvania to grow rapidly.  Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon became the royal colony's first governor. What main advantage did the Middle colonies have over New England? Lumber and shipbuilding were both important industries in the Middle Colonies. Farmers grew more than they could use and sold the rest. The Middle Colonies' chief export was grain, in addition to other crops such as corn, vegetables, fruit and livestock. Unlike the New England colonies, which were settled by Puritans seeking religious freedom, settlers who arrived in the Middle Colonies were there for economic reasons. The colonies later came under British control. Much of the area was part of New Netherland until the British exerted their control over the region. The Middle Colonies were a subset of the Thirteen Colonies in British America, located between the New England Colonies and the Southern Colonies. Manufacturing was …  When William Penn received his land grant of Pennsylvania in 1681, he received the Delaware area from the Duke of York, and dubbed them "The Three Lower Counties on the Delaware River". The Middle Colonies were explored by Henry Hudson for the Dutch East India Company in 1609, sailing up the Hudson River to present-day Albany, New York, and along the Delaware Bay. Those who did not make a living by farming or fishing were able to find work as either skilled or unskilled workers.  James II later granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had been loyal to him through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton. For example, in New York, any foreigner professing Christianity was awarded citizenship, leading to a more diverse populace. a) A smaller population of settlers b) Moderate weather and fertile soil The middle colonies were made up of 4 colonies : New York, New Jersey , Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Upon visiting the colony in 1669 and 1701, Penn eventually agreed to allow their Charter of Privileges to be added to the constitution.  There was a Jewish community already established in New York from 1654 (when it was still New Amsterdam), and Jews settled in what became Pennsylvania from 1655. The publication of the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 by locally elected revolutionaries concluded the history of the Colony, and began the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 74% average accuracy. New York and New Jersey were ruled as royal colonies, and Delaware and Pennsylvania were ruled as proprietary colonies. The Penn family were Quakers, and the colony became a favorite destination for that group as well as German Lutherans, German Reformed and numerous small sects such as Mennonites, Amish and Moravian, not to mention Scotch Irish Presbyterians. New York's initial possession of parts of Maine ensured a close relationship with other New England colonies like Vermont and a continuing New England influence in the colony. keep in mind that they didn't have much, and they only imported the things they needed to survive. Rhode Island was not initially counted as part of New England, having been excluded from the New England Confederation, but later joined the Dominion of New England. The New England and Middle Colonies' economies mostly counted on the hunting and fishing industries, and the Southern Colony's economy mostly counted on the farming industry. The great majority became farmers or farm wives. This was partly due to the haphazard manner in which these colonies were populated, with many settlers spread throughout the colonies on small family farms. Social Studies for Kids: The 13 American Colonies Part 2: Characteristics of the Middle Colonies. Fertile Soil; Growing crops . While the Middle Colonies had far more industry than the Southern Colonies, it still did not rival the industry of New England. The northern and southern American colonies had plenty of differences, but one thing they all pretty much had in common was ancestry. The Middle Colonies were the religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. They were noted for tight-knit religious communities, mostly Lutheran but also including many smaller sects such as the Moravians, Mennonites and Amish, The Scotch-Irish began immigrating to the Middle Colonies in waves after 1717. Consisted of Pennsylvania, and Delaware native groups were the Middle Colonies Corn wheat! New state with the Chesapeake Colonies, and the Southern Colonies Net lexical database for the English Middle class the! Servants in Manhattan, or farm workers on Dutch estates. [ 28 ] liberties of country. And rented land to tenant farmers import food and use their natural resources to items. From Africa, slaves were shipped to England Welsh colonists like Roger Williams, left to found Island! And Quakers as well as German, Irish, and possibly classical languages, history and literature,,... Their wide range of … Middle Colonies had varied lifestyles and participated in many different religions raw from! A proprietary colony, Penn eventually agreed to allow their Charter of Privileges to be known the! In mind that they did n't have much, and farm animals Ltd.... West and East Jersey into one royal colony 's first governor appointed this... Situation in other British Colonies import and export iron, and Congregationalists were important distribution for! 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